Survival stresses

Survival = PMA - Positive Mental Attitude

It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters, get food, make fires, and travel without the aid of standard navigational devices to live successfully through a survival situation. Some people with little or no survival training have managed to survive life-threatening situations where others have perished.

A key ingredient in any survival situation is the mental attitude of those involved. Having survival skills is important as it boosts your confidence however having the will to survive is essential. Without a PMA and the will to survive, acquired skills serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge goes to waste equally with PMA and a little commonsense even the most basic skills and training can be expanded upon to do great things.

There is a psychology to survival. The survivor faces many stresses that ultimately impact upon their mind. These stresses can produce thoughts and emotions that, if poorly understood, can transform a confident, well-trained person into an indecisive, ineffective individual with questionable ability to survive. Thus, every person must be aware of and be able to recognize those stresses commonly associated with survival.

Additionally, it is imperative that people be aware of their reactions to the wide variety of stresses associated with survival. On SurvivALL courses we aim to make the scenerio's as realistic as possible - as we used to say in the army "train hard - fight easy" as such below we will identify and explain the nature of survival stresses and those internal reactions some people will naturally experience when faced with the stresses of a real-world survival situation.

The knowledge you gain from this will help to prepare you to come through the toughest times alive.

Before we can understand our psychological reactions in a survival setting, it is helpful to first know a little bit about stress.

Stress is not a disease that you cure and eliminate. Instead, it is a condition we all experience. Stress can be described as our reaction to pressure. It is the name given to the experience we have as we physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually respond to life's tensions.

Need for Stress

We need stress because it has many positive benefits. Stress provides us with challenges; it gives us chances to learn about our values and strengths. Stress can show our ability to handle pressure without breaking; it tests our adaptability and flexibility; it can stimulate us to do our best. Because we usually do not consider unimportant events stressful, stress can also be an excellent indicator of the significance we attach to an event--in other words, it highlights what is important to us.

We need to have some stress in our lives, but too much of anything can be bad. The goal is to have stress, but not an excess of it. Too much stress can take its toll on people and organizations. Too much stress leads to distress. Distress causes an uncomfortable tension that we try to escape and, preferably, avoid.

Listed below are a few of the common signs of distress you may find in yourself or others when faced with too much stress:

Difficulty making decisions.
Angry outbursts.
Low energy level.
Constant worrying.
Propensity for mistakes.
Thoughts about death or suicide.
Trouble getting along with others.
Withdrawing from others.
Hiding from responsibilities.

As you can see, stress can be constructive or destructive. It can encourage or discourage, move us along or stop us dead in our tracks, and make life meaningful or seemingly meaningless. Stress can inspire you to operate successfully and perform at your maximum efficiency in a survival situation. It can also cause you to panic and forget all your training. Key to your survival is your ability to manage the inevitable stresses you will encounter. The survivor who works with his stresses instead of letting his stresses work on him will usually prevail

Survival Stressors

Any event can lead to stress and, as everyone has experienced, events don't always come one at a time. Often, stressful events occur simultaneously. These events are not stress, but they produce it and are called "stressors."

Stressors are the obvious cause while stress is the response. Once the body recognizes the presence of a stressor, it then begins to act to protect itself.

In response to a stressor, the body prepares for either "fight or flight." This preparation involves an internal SOS sent throughout the body. As the body responds to this SOS, several actions take place.

  1. The body releases stored fuels (sugar and fats) to provide quick energy;

  2. breathing rate increases to supply more oxygen to the blood;

  3. muscle tension increases to prepare for action;

  4. blood clotting mechanisms are activated to reduce bleeding from cuts;

  5. senses become more acute (hearing becomes more sensitive, eyes become big, smell becomes sharper) so that you are more aware of your surrounding and heart rate and blood pressure rise to provide more blood to the muscles.

This protective posture lets a person cope with potential dangers; however, a person cannot maintain such a level of alertness indefinitely.

Stressors are not courteous; one stressor does not leave because another one arrives. Stressors add up. The cumulative effect of minor stressors can be a major distress if they all happen too close together. As the body's resistance to stress wears down and the sources of stress continue (or increase), eventually a state of exhaustion arrives. At this point, the ability to resist stress or use it in a positive way gives out and signs of distress appear.

Anticipating stressors and developing strategies to cope with them are two ingredients in the effective management of stress. It is therefore essential that a person in a survival setting be aware of the types of stressors they will encounter.

Let's take a look at a few of these. Injury, Illness, or Death are real possibilities a survivor has to face. Perhaps nothing is more stressful than being alone in an unfamiliar environment where you could die from an accident or from eating something lethal. Illness and injury can also add to stress by limiting your ability to maneuver, get food and drink, find shelter or defend yourself. Even if illness and injury don't lead to death, they add to stress through the pain and discomfort they generate. It is only by controlling the stress associated with the vulnerability to injury, illness, and death that a survivor can have the courage to take the risks associated with survival tasks.

Uncertainly and Lack of Control - some people have trouble operating in settings where everything is not clear-cut. The only guarantee in a survival situation is that nothing is guaranteed. It can be extremely stressful operating on limited information in a setting where you have limited control of your surroundings. This uncertainty and lack of control also add to the stress of being ill, injured, or killed.

Environment - even under the most ideal circumstances, nature is quite formidable. In survival, you will have to contend with the stressors of weather, terrain, and the variety of creatures inhabiting an area. Heat, cold, rain, winds, mountains, swamps, deserts, insects, dangerous reptiles, and other animals are just a few of the challenges awaiting the person working to survive. Depending on how you handle the stress of your environment, your surroundings can be either a source of food and protection or can be a cause of extreme discomfort leading to injury, illness, or death.

Hunger and Thirst - without food and water a person will weaken and eventually die. Thus, getting and preserving food and water takes on increasing importance as the length of time in a survival setting increases. For a person used to having provisions foraging can be a big source of stress. But remember you can go for weeks without food.

Fatigue - forcing yourself to continue surviving is not easy as you grow more tired. It is possible to become so fatigued that the act of just staying awake is stressful in itself.

Isolation - there are some advantages to facing adversity with others. As a soldier I learnt individual skills, but we trained to function as part of a team. Although we, as soldiers, complain about higher headquarters, we become used to the information and guidance it provides, especially during times of confusion. Being in contact with others also provides a greater sense of security and a feeling someone is available to help if problems occur. A significant stressor in survival situations is that often a person or team has to rely solely on its own resources.

The survival stressors mentioned in this section are by no means the only ones you may face. Remember, what is stressful to one person may not be stressful to another. Your experiences, training, personal outlook on life, physical and mental conditioning, and level of self-confidence contribute to what you will find stressful in a survival environment. The object is not to avoid stress, but rather to manage the stressors of survival and make them work for you.

We now have a general knowledge of stress and the stressors common to survival; the next step is to examine our reactions to the stressors we may face.

Man has been able to survive many shifts in his environment throughout the centuries. His ability to adapt physically and mentally to a changing world kept him alive while other species around him gradually died off. The same survival mechanisms that kept our forefathers alive can help keep us alive as well! However, these survival mechanisms that can help us can also work against us if we don't understand and anticipate their presence.

It is not surprising that the average person will have some psychological reactions in a survival situation. We will now examine some of the major internal reactions you and anyone with you might experience with the survival stressors addressed in the earlier paragraphs. Let's begin.

Fear is our emotional response to dangerous circumstances that we believe have the potential to cause death, injury, or illness. This harm is not just limited to physical damage; the threat to one's emotional and mental well-being can generate fear as well. For anyone trying to survive, fear can have a positive function if it encourages them to be cautious in situations where recklessness could result in injury. Unfortunately, fear can also immobilize a person. It can cause him to become so frightened that he fails to perform activities essential for survival. Most people will have some degree of fear when placed in unfamiliar surroundings under adverse conditions. There is no shame in this! Each person must train himself not to be overcome by his fears. Ideally, through realistic training, we can acquire the knowledge and skills needed to increase our confidence and thereby manage our fears.

Associated with fear is anxiety. Because it is natural for us to be afraid, it is also natural for us to experience anxiety. Anxiety can be an uneasy, apprehensive feeling we get when faced with dangerous situations (physical, mental, and emotional). When used in a healthy way, anxiety urges us to act to end, or at least master, the dangers that threaten our existence. If we were never anxious, there would be little motivation to make changes in our lives. The person in a survival setting reduces his anxiety by performing those tasks that will ensure his coming through the ordeal alive. As he reduces his anxiety, he is also bringing under control the source of that anxiety--his fears. In this form, anxiety is good; however, anxiety can also have a devastating impact. Anxiety can overwhelm someone to the point where they become easily confused and have difficulty thinking. Once this happens, it becomes more and more difficult for them to make good judgments and sound decisions. To survive you must learn techniques to calm his anxieties and keep them in the range where they help, not hurt.

Anger and Frustration
Frustration arises when a person is continually thwarted in his attempts to reach a goal. The goal of survival is to stay alive until you can reach help or until help can reach you. To achieve this goal you must complete some tasks with minimal resources - maybe a survival kit? It is inevitable, in trying to do these tasks, that something will go wrong; that something will happen beyond your control; and that with one's life at stake, every mistake is magnified in terms of its importance. Thus, sooner or later you will have to cope with frustration when a few of your plans run into trouble.

One outgrowth of this frustration is anger - brute strength and ignorance can sometimes save you in the short term but may be detrimental in the long term. There are many events in a survival situation that can frustrate or anger some. Getting lost, damaged or forgotten equipment, the weather, inhospitable terrain and physical limitations are just a few sources of frustration and anger. Frustration and anger encourage impulsive reactions, irrational behavior, poorly thought-out decisions, and, in some instances, an "I quit" attitude (people sometimes avoid doing something they can't master). If you can harness and properly channel the emotional intensity associated with anger and frustration, you can productively act and answers the challenges of survival.

If you do not properly focus his angry feelings conversely you can waste much energy in activities that do little to further either your chances of survival or the chances of those around you.

It would be a rare person indeed who would not get sad, at least momentarily, when faced with the privations of survival. As this sadness deepens, we label the feeling "depression." Depression is closely linked with frustration and anger. The frustrated person becomes more and more angry as he fails to reach his goals. If the anger does not help the person to succeed, then the frustration level goes even higher. A destructive cycle between anger and frustration continues until the person becomes worn down-physically, emotionally, and mentally. When a person reaches this point, he starts to give up, and his focus shifts from "What can I do" to "There is nothing I can do." Depression is an expression of this hopeless, helpless feeling. There is nothing wrong with being sad as you temporarily think about your loved ones and remember what life is like back in "civilization" or "the world." Such thoughts, in fact, can give you the desire to try harder and live one more day. On the other hand, if you allow yourself to sink into a depressed state, then it can sap all your energy and, more important, your will to survive. It is imperative that each person resist succumbing to depression - PMA or focus on whats important to you.

Loneliness and Boredom
Man is a social animal. This means we, as human beings, enjoy the company of others. Very few people want to be alone all the time! As you are aware, there is a distinct chance of isolation in a survival setting. This is not bad. Loneliness and boredom can bring to the surface qualities you thought only others had. The extent of your imagination and creativity may surprise you. When required to do so, you may discover some hidden talents and abilities. Most of all, you may tap into a reservoir of inner strength and fortitude you never knew you had. Conversely, loneliness and boredom can be another source of depression. As a person surviving alone, or with others, you must find ways to keep your mind productively occupied make tools, traps, calculate time ect ect. Additionally, you must develop a degree of self-sufficiency. You must have faith in your capability to "go it alone."

The circumstances leading to your being in a survival setting are sometimes dramatic and tragic. It may be the result of an accident where there was a loss of life. Perhaps you were the only, or one of a few survivors. While naturally relieved to be alive, you simultaneously may be mourning the deaths of others who were less fortunate, maybe family or friends. It is not uncommon for survivors to feel guilty about being spared from death while others were not. This feeling, when used in a positive way, has encouraged people to try harder to survive with the belief they were allowed to live for some greater purpose in life. Sometimes, survivors tried to stay alive so that they could carry on the work of those killed. Whatever reason you give yourself, do not let guilty feelings prevent you from living. The living who abandon their chance to survive accomplish nothing. Such an act would be the greatest tragedy indeed.

Your sole role in a survival situation is to stay alive. As you can see, you are going to experience an assortment of thoughts and emotions. These can work for you, or they can work to your downfall. Fear, anxiety, anger, frustration, guilt, depression, and loneliness are all possible reactions to the many stresses common to survival. These reactions, when controlled in a healthy way, help to increase the likelihood of your surviving. They prompt you to pay more attention in training, to fight back when scared, to take actions that ensure sustenance and security, to keep faith with his fellow survivors, and to strive against all odds. When the survivor cannot control these reactions in a healthy way, they can bring him to a standstill. Instead of rallying his internal resources he listens to his internal fears. This person experiences psychological defeat long before he physically succumbs.

Remember, survival is natural to everyone; being unexpectedly thrust into the life and death struggle of survival is not. Don't be afraid of your "natural reactions to this unnatural situation." Prepare yourself to rule over these reactions so they serve your ultimate interest--staying alive.

It involves preparation to ensure that your reactions in a survival setting are productive, not destructive. The challenge of survival has produced countless examples of heroism, courage, and self-sacrifice. These are the qualities it can bring out in you if you have prepared yourself.

Below are a few ideas to help prepare yourself psychologically for survival.

Know Yourself
Through training, family, and friends take the time to discover who you are on the inside. Strengthen your stronger qualities and develop the areas that you know are necessary to survive.
Anticipate Fears
Don't pretend that you will have no fears. Begin thinking about what would frighten you the most if forced to survive alone. Train in those areas of concern to you. The goal is not to eliminate the fear, but to build confidence in your ability to function despite your fears.
Be Realistic
Don't be afraid to make an honest appraisal of situations. See circumstances as they are, not as you want them to be. Keep your hopes and expectations within the estimate of the situation. When you go into a survival setting with unrealistic expectations, you may be laying the groundwork for bitter disappointment. Follow the adage,

"Hope for the best, prepare for the worst and deal with whatever comes your way"

It is much easier to adjust to pleasant surprises about one's unexpected good fortunes than to be upset by one's unexpected harsh circumstances.

Adopt a Positive Attitude
Learn to see the potential good in everything. Looking for the good not only boosts morale, it also is excellent for exercising your imagination and creativity.

Remind Yourself What Is at Stake
Remember, failure to prepare yourself psychologically to cope with survival leads to reactions such as depression, carelessness, inattention, loss of confidence, poor decision-making, and giving up before the body gives in. At stake is your life and the lives of others who are depending on you to do your share.
Through training and life experiences, begin today to prepare yourself to cope with the rigors of survival. Demonstrating your skills in training will give you the confidence to call upon them should the need arise. Remember, the more realistic the training, the less overwhelming an actual survival setting will be.

Learn Stress Management Techniques
People under stress have a potential to panic if they are not well-trained and not prepared psychologically to face whatever the circumstances may be. While we often cannot control the survival circumstances in which we find ourselves, it is within our ability to control our response to those circumstances. Learning stress management techniques can enhance significantly your capability to remain calm and focused as you work to keep yourself and others alive. A few good techniques to develop include relaxation skills, time management skills, assertiveness skills, and cognitive restructuring skills (the ability to control how you view a situation). Remember the stratagies PLAN and Stop both will help you control your initial stress.

Remember, "the will to survive" can also be considered to be "the refusal to give up."
Good luck!

The above information and further reading can be found in various manuals including the US army Survival Manual, 96.8 and Deep Survival.

Final thought - Yoda had it right - "do or do not - there is NO try!" - keep a positive attitude!


Does your knife glow when Orcies are about?

Lord of the Rings fans might be interested to hear that recently the SurvivALL team have been working with the actors and production team of a new LotR's movie to train Aragorn how to be a ranger!

Teaching the lead actor survivor and wilderness living skills was great fun and watching the scenes being shot which contained the skills we taught him was a excellent way to round up our training package!!

Even more important, after seeing people bounding across the screen demonstrating skills which in many cases are down right dangerious it'll be cool to see someone on screen actually using survival skills correctly!!


Survival CUTTING tool combo

Cutting tools, like any tools, are the subject of much debate be it as a work tool among carpenters or as a hobby tools among outdoors folk.

As both a bushcraft and survival instructor I will use the bushcraft knife as my example here - in the area of the bushcraft hobbyist a knife, a saw and a axe are the 'norm' and as most bushcrafter’s try to emulate Ray Mears they tend to fall into the trap of buying an expensive clone of his own design of knife.

While, for craft work, the best tool you can afford is an acceptable maxim and if its your hobby you will happily spend a few pounds more for it - but does a £200 plus knife cut or carve any better than a good quality £10? Indeed I would argue that a Mora Clipper is equal to most tasks and generally as good in use as most custom £200 jobs. Further more in todays world I would also argue that a factory made knife in many ways is superior to a handmade custom job, primarily because a big business such as Mora in Sweden or Leatherman in the states has the science and technology to produce metals which are of the highest quality in mix for pennies and as such leaves the poor hand make lumbered with little choice above tool steel which they can afford to by in small quantities regardless of the steels quality (although you'd still hear arguements for Hand made steels ect - mostly from those who make them or their friends and this is fair enough a knife is a very personal thing so if the price suits you go for it!) - so a £10 brand name factory knife could and in all respects probably is equal if not better in quality of steel to any hand made £200 knife - maybe not as pretty or aesthetically pleasing however.

For the survival knife, as opposed to the craft knife, should we be any less sentimental? Should we go for an expensive tool that looks good on our hip or a cheaper more practical workman like tool?

I personally would say the survivor (and if you can afford the best please feel free to buy it - the Wilderness knife from Bearclaw bushcraft and the neck knife combo are excellent! ") ) should be more interested in usability rather than looks! The survivor wants a tool that can be used in everyway possible not a work of art they are afraid to use in case they damage it, we want a tool that is easily packed and comes in a tough sheath workman like sheath - not something we can pose with on our hip - but something we can rely on letting actions speak louder than words.

Unlike the Bushcrafter the Survivor should also be looking for a tool which has the greatest level of versatility available in one tool rather than relying on have specific tools for specific tasks aka spoon knives ect. Ideally the tool the survivor chooses should be able to act as a axe and a knife, should be able to be used to dig with (and yes I know you can carve a digging stick) and to pound, should have the weight for heavy work yet the balance for fine work, the survivor doesn’t have the luxury of a sheath knife, a axe, a saw, a spoon knife and a necker ect - the survivor at best has a camp knife and a pocket knife so the choice is vital.

The pocket knife we have discussed in the Super Swede article but what about the camp knife?

Ideally this needs to be a big knife a blade of 7 - 12 inches would be ideal! It also needs to be a no frills tool - we will use it for many tasks, we will use it hard so it must be a strongly constructed tool, reliable and easily maintained.

To my mind the Khukri meets the above criteria, and as such is an ideal tool for the survivor. This coupled with the super Swede will meet all the survivors needs - a tried and tested tool with a history of reliability behind it!! The tool itself is simple and traditionally made from Vehicle leaf suspension spring - the shape means the chopping weight is forward on the belly making the tool easily as effective as a hatchet but far safer in use. This coupled with the two little knives - Karda and Chakmak make it a good alrounder as you would expect from a tool that has been relied upon for over 2500 years!

KHUKURI \ KUKRI KNIFE: A mid-length curved knife comprising a distinctive “Cho” that is the national knife and icon of Nepal, basic and traditional utility knife of Nepalese, a formidable and effective weapon of the Gurkhas and an exquisite piece of local craftsmanship that symbolizes pride and valor which also represents the country and it’s culture. Believed to have existed 2500 years ago; “Kopi” is the probable source of the Khukuri that was used by Greek in the 4 th BC. However, khukuri came into limelight only in and particularly after the Nepal War in 1814-15 after the formation of British Gurkha Army. Basically carried in a leather case, mostly having walnut wooden grip and traditionally having two small knives, it is one of the most famous and feared knives of the world.

Khukri Musuem Nepal

The Kukri is a excellent full sized camp knife ideal for all the tasks we'd ask of a Hatchet or small forest axe - in recent trials I used my Kukri for every type of task I'd use a small axe for and it has been as easily as effective although practice and experience are require to familiarise yourself with the tool but no more so than the equal amount required to learn safe axe use.

The two smaller knives go a long way to making the Kukri a far more complete outfit. The smallers knives (usually 3" in length - 1" blade) are the Karda which is a utility blade ideal for food or game prep and all those niggally little tasks the bigger blade is deemed to cumbersome for - being of a low temper the Karda is easily resharpened. The OTHER tool is a Chakmak this is a sharpening device not really a stone more like a file or ceramic rod................but it is also a tool that can be used with flint for fire lighting as in your standard flint and steel - more versatile still ots also a excellent scrapper for the fire steel (ferro rod) casting huge sparks. While the Karda and Chakmak arent essential (as I usually carry the Kukri and the Super Swede) they do make for great additions and are ideal for the survivor looking to carry just one tool!!

The Kukri, like any knife that over the years has been relied upon by native people and that has not evolved with time, can be deemed to having stood the test of time and its lack of modern gadgets or evolution as being due to the fact IT WORKS and this if nothing else tells the survivor it is a tool to be trust and relied upon.

One down side - well only if you dont know how to sharpen a knife - is the fact they dont come razor sharp out the packet - but as we ALL know you should always sharpen a knife from new before use anyway so this doesnt matter.

Or looking at it in a positive light - from new it allows you to put the angle and cutting edge you want on the blade from the start, making its more personal and easier to maintain in the future ") Kukri's available from bearclaw Bushcraft ranging from the 9" general purpose to the jungle slashing 12" survival model - all hand made and authentic!


Survival stratagies

Hopefully disaster will never strike but if it does we need a well practiced, well thought out plan or strategy to help us overcome those initial moments of panic and black hearted fear!!

A strategy which is both flexible (to allow for any situation we find ourselves in) and yet good enough to cover all likely situations.
Two strategies I like are remembered by the acronyms - PLAN and STOP

P - Protection
L - Location
A - Acquisition
N - Navigation
This is what the Military are taught and works well - tried and tested!

S - Stop
T - Think
O - Organise
P - Priorities
This is a civilian version and takes into account the fear and panic factor....................

Both acronyms work on their own but each has its limits as either or neither offer the total flexibility we really seek.

But bring them together - Stop - Think - Organise - Prioritise - Location - Acquisition - Navigation and we have a good working strategy - so let’s look at this!

Stop - don’t panic, sit down and think - calm down.
Think - where are you roughly - what skills do you have (wish you'd done a SurvivALL course now don’t you!) - will rescue be coming or are you on your own?
Organise - now’s the time to empty your pack and pockets - do a stock take - the amount of 'goodies' you find will surprise you and give you more confidence - and if you have a survival kit that you know how to use .............................................
Prioritise - Shelter - fire - food - water - what’s your situation?? Maybe signalling for help is most important - work out your priorities and get to work
Location - As a civilian location means we need to start marking our location to aid rescuers as well as to recce the location - make small circular patrols around the site and as you grow more confident make these wider and wider so you slowly discover the local resources without the risk of getting lost!
Acquisition - Having discovered the resources in your area now’s the time to being foraging and harvesting - DO NOT - pick it just because its there! Plan for the long haul - take what you need and no more - remember we can go a long time without food, that why its always better to carry a spare pound or two around the waist! Consider it emergency rations - we'll talk about fasting in a survival situation and the body’s response another time!
Navigation - Never is it advised for someone to Navigate away from a survival situation the advise is ALWAYS stay with the vehicle but if the time for rescue has past and none is forth coming then you may have to navigate out - if so ensure you can navigate, understand how to use natural compasses and map your terrain - again form a plan and ensure you leave signs indicating your direction of travel a good idea is to also leave a note on the vehicle telling rescuers when you left - where you plan to go - what you plan to do - what you have with you - what signals you will leave ect - the more information the better.

A survival strategy gives us a solid foundation to work from and prevents PANIC. Survival is more a mental exercise than a physical one and the mental exercise, as with all things starts at the planning stage.

But remember skills and knowledge build confidence once the worst happens and these are the buttresses upon which our mind can depend, these are our fall back positions and having these in our armoury means we can confidently plan our strategies!



Several people on previewing the new blog and the new website for the Survival school have asked me WHY SurvivALL?

So here’s the answer.............
Firstly, having googled and searched the internet I found very few sites running 'proper' survival courses most just seemed to be bushcraft schools who bolted on the term survival and as such were either not sure what it was or just used it as a word to drag in extra custom - this I decided would not do as the correct skills required in a Genuine Survival scenario are usually lacking in bushcraft - this was the first thing to prompt me to set up SurvivALL which is a pure survival school with courses that are designed for ALL outdoors folk not just Bushcrafters. More than this SurvivALL is also designed for mums and dads, brothers and sisters, anyone who enjoys travelling - tourist or explorer - and who wants the reassurance of the knowledge that should the unexpected happen they can deal with it and in so doing preserve the lives of loved ones and themselves.
Secondly, and because of the above I decided upon the name SurvivALL as our courses are for us ALL. And our logo hopefully reflects this too .............IMPROVIDUS - APTO - SUPERO - means several things, improvise adapt and overcome is the rough translation, however more correctly it reads Unforeseeing (without knowing the danger, the unexpected) - to prepare (we build up our knowledge by practicing our skills to ensure we can deal with the UNFORSEEN) - to Survive (we use our built up knowledge and skills to rise above the unexpected and survive).
Unforeseeing we prepare to survive - we SurvivALL

The Rising Sun symbol on the logo is also there to remind us we train to survive - firstly because, as in many cases, survival at its most basic is doing the right things to help us live to see sun rise the next day. Many survivors are quoted as saying this, saying how they planned each day with the sole aim of seeing the next day’s sun rise! But our sun rise goes deeper - the four rays of sun light with reach out above the sun are there to remind us of two of Survivals most important Acronyms S.T.O.P or its more military cousin P.L.A.N.

So why SurvivALL and why the SurvivALL logo? Because survival is for us all - it is the foundation and the fall back upon which all outdoors folk, all travellers ( even day trippers and tourists) may (God forbid) has to rely .

And lastly, to quote Lofty Wiseman "Life we survive til we die!"